Back in the 1930s, during the Great Depression, my father and grandfather paid off the mortgage on the farm through income from turpentine.
This is a catface, where the bark was scraped off a pine tree so its sap would ooze out, to be caught in a metal cup nailed below on the tree.
At the far side of the pond, Yellow Dog spotted a moccasin before anybody else. The small but deadly Agkistrodon piscivorus didn’t stand a chance against the pair of experienced snake wranglers, Yellow Dog and Brown Dog.
The forest beside the stream also changes after beaver occupation.
When beavers cut down trees for food and for building their dams and
lodges, they select the species of trees that they prefer, and leave
other tree species standing. Consequently, after many years, the
forest beside a beaver pond is usually dominated by different tree
species than it was before beaver occupation, and in the gaps where
the beavers removed trees, bushes and saplings now grow and with
them the animal species that live in the early stages of forest
regeneration (Barnes and Dibble 1986; Johnston and Naiman 1990;
Pastor and Naiman 1992; Donkor et al. 2000). In addition, when the
beaver pond is formed by the dam, water floods and covers the roots
of trees that formerly stood along the stream bank. These flooded
trees die because the standing water prevents their roots from
In Wyoming, a survey showed that owners of private lands believed
that they benefited from beaver engineering because Continue reading →